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オープンソースは「所有」に対する既成概念に相反する/Steven Weber "The Success of Open Source"

(日本語は後半にあります。Japanese follows.)

I've been in interested in open source for several years since the idea came up to me that operating system won't generate the most of profit in computer business any more. It has surely generated the most, at least in the era of Wintel domination. "Design Rules: The Power of Modularity" is my recommendation to understand the ancien regime.

Why the concept of open source attracts me? One of the books I bought game me an explanation. That is "The Success of Open Source" written by Steven Weber. (I guess it isn't translated in Japanese.) According to the book, Weber is a professor of political science at University of California, Berkeley. It may sound odd but the fact didn't surprise me that open source attracts not only technology professionals but a social science professor. He explains open source is quite different from the mechanism seen in our society. Let me quote several impressive sentences: (I capitalized some words for emphases)

Open source is an experiment in social organization around distinctive notion of property rights. Property is, of course, a complicated concept in any setting. For the moment, consider a core notion of property in a modern market economy as a benchmark. The most general definition of a property right is an enforceable claim that one individual has, to take actions in relation to other individuals regarding some "thing". Private property rests on the ability of the property holder to "alienate" (that is, trade, sell, lease, or otherwise transfer) the right to manage the "thing" or determine who can access it under EXCLUDE OTHERS from it according to terms that the owner specifies. (An omission) 
Open source radically inverts this core notion of property. Property in open source is configured fundamentally around the right to DISTRIBUTE, NOT THE RIGHT TO EXCLUDE. If that sentence still sounds awkward, it is a testimony to just how deeply embedded within our intuition the exclusion view of property really is. 


ここ数年、オープンソースに興味を持っていた。たぶん、そのきっかけは、OSがもはやコンピューター産業における利益の源泉ではなくなっていくだろう、と感じたからだと思う。これまでの時代は、OSが最もコンピューターアーキテクチャーの中で支配的なモジュールであったことは確かだけれども。(人はそれを「Wintel時代」と呼ぶ)これまでのコンピューターアーキテクチャーの「モジュール化」の歴史を学べる良書としては、「デザイン・ルール モジュール化パワー」をおすすめします。

なんでオープンソースが気になるのか、自分でもよく分からなくて困っていたんだけど、ある本を読んで、激しく腹落ちした。「あー、そうか、だから私はオープンソースが気になってたんだー」と。"The Success of Open Source" Steven Weberという、UCバークレーの政治学の先生が書いた本です。なんで政治学の先生が?と思う方もいらっしゃるかもしれませんが、オープンソースという事象に見られる人々の行動は、従来世の中を動かすメカニズムとは大きく違う故に、彼も興味を持ったそうです。残念ながら、まだ日本語の翻訳は出てないようですが。印象的だった部分を下記に翻訳してみます。(原文は上記。太字は私が強調した箇所) 



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